Above: The North Dakota Heritage Center in Bismarck. Note the "rebar buffalo" sculpture on the left.
One of the best discoveries I made during the past seven weeks here in Bismarck is the North Dakota Heritage Center. Located near the
capitol building, the Heritage Center contains an amazing collection of old documents, maps, newspapers, books, photos, and census records of North
Dakota. It's a great resource for anyone interested in researching their North Dakota ancestors. Anyone like me!
I’ve spent nearly every day during the past four weeks at the Heritage Center poring over old plat maps, reading through countless microfilmed
newspapers and going through census records searching for my ancestors, all with the help of the Center's director, a wonderful woman named Susan
Dingle. In doing so, I was slowly able to reconstruct my mother’s childhood, the stories of her parents, Helga and Edward, and the
stories of their parents.
It's taken me four weeks but I did it, and I've described their stories on this page and the next.
Above left: The archives room of the Heritage Center. This is terrific resource for anyone interested in North Dakota
history. I spent about a month here researching my mom's family history. The staff here was very friendly and helpful. Thanks, Susan and Greg!
Above right: The Heritage Center also contains a fantastic museum. I spent five hours here one day and still didn't see it all.
The Swangs: Anna's Story
Above: My great-grandmother, Anna Swang (right) with her daughter, Betsy. This was taken around 1925 when
Anna was in her 50s. I don't have any pictures of Anna with her daughter (and my grandmother), Helga together.
My grandmother, Helga Swang (pronounced "Swong"), was born in 1898 on a farm near Webster, South Dakota. Her parents, Nels and
Anna Swang – originally spelled Svang – had emigrated from Norway to America as children, separately. I had spent several weeks in the Webster
area in August researching Helga's parents, Nels and Anna (see News: August 30, 2001).
My great-grandmother, Anna Sakrina Abrams, was born in 1868 in the small town of Nord Rana on the central coast of Norway. Interestingly, Nord Rana
is only a few miles from Nesna, where one of my other great-grandmothers, Petrina Blege, was born just two years earlier. These two women would
become, in the 1920s, the two mothers-in-law of my grandparents, Helga and Edward, and they both lived in central North Dakota at that time: Anna in
Fessenden and Petrina on a farm near Regan. I wonder if the mothers-in-law ever got together and talked about their childhoods in coastal Norway, perhaps
over some plates of lutefisk. Heck, they may have even known each other as children back in Norway long before they ever dreamed of emigrating to America.
But emigrate they did. Anna came to America in 1889 when she was 21 years old, either alone or with her family, we don't know. I also don't know why
she came to America but I'm guessing that, like so many others, it was for a better opportunity. She moved to South Dakota and lived just a few miles from the
Svang homestead, near Webster, and became a naturalized citizen in 1896, the same year she married a local farmer, Nels Svang.
Within four years Nels and Anna had four children, Betsy, Helga, Albert, and Henry, and around 1900 they moved to Edmunds, South Dakota. The family moved to
Fessenden, North Dakota in 1902 where Nels got a job as an engineer on the Sault Sainte Marie ("Soo") Railroad. Anna and Nels had another child there,
Alvin, for a total of five.
Above: Map showing the birthplaces of three of my great-grandparents in Norway in the 1800s. Anna was from
Nord Rana on the central coast.
As I learned in the Heritage Center in Bismarck, Nels and Anna divorced around 1905, which was quite rare in those days. Piecing together the story, it
seems that Nels abruptly left the family and headed to California, leaving Anna to raise their five children alone. I also learned that after Nels left, Anna
became a laundress and, after a few years, she had saved up enough money to buy her own house in Fessenden. That was another rarity back in those days, a single
woman owning her own house.
Anna worked hard as a laundress in Fessenden to support herself and her children. I thought that was quite admirable and showed a lot of pluck and
determination, traits that unfortunately haven't passed down to me! Anna worked into her 60s almost until the day she died. This was before the idea of
retirement and Social Security, when most people worked until they passed away. In the spring of 1933, she developed an illness and died quietly in her sleep on
May 9, 1933. She is buried in the Hillside Cemetery near Fessenden.
If parents are judged on the accomplishments of their children, Anna was apparently a wonderful mother. Her oldest son, Albert, volunteered for the U.S. Army
at the outbreak of World War I but was rejected because he was too young. After turning 18, in 1917, he enlisted and was sent to France to fight in the trenches where he
fought in several bloody battles, including the Aisne-Marne and Meuse-Argonne. Albert was gassed during the war and never fully recovered. He returned to
North Dakota in 1919, became a store clerk, married in 1926 and moved to Minneapolis, where he died in 1946 at age 45, perhaps from the debilitating effects of his scarred
lungs. He's buried in the Fort Snelling National Cemetery.
Anna’s second son, Henry, served in the U.S. Army in the mid-1920s, then was discharged in California and got a job there in construction. He and his wife Hazel
moved to Monterey, California in the early 1930s, where he worked on the construction of several new bridges, including the Bixby Creek Bridge (see
News: June 14, 2001), one of the most iconic bridges in America; I'm sure you've seen it many times in television ads. A few years later, Henry moved to
San Francisco where he helped build the Golden Gate Bridge. He died in 1952 in Tacoma, Washington. Anna's daughter Betsy moved to Minneapolis, became a teacher
and had a daughter, and her son Alvin lived to age 78 and died in 1979 in San Francisco. I've described Anna's other daughter,
Helga (my grandmother) on a separate page.
Halley Came To Jackson is a wonderful song by Mary Chapin Carpenter. I wonder what my
grandparents thought when they saw Halley's Comet in 1910.
One afternoon in October 2001, I drove up to Fessenden, a town of about 600 people located about 60 miles north of Bismarck. I knew there weren't
any Swangs still in the area but I wanted to see if Anna's house was still standing. I also wanted to visit Anna's grave. I had a few photos
of Anna's house taken in 1916, so I spent a few minutes driving around Fessenden looking for it. Unable to find Anna's house, I stopped by the
Wells County Courthouse and, after spending an hour in the Recorder's Office poring through huge Deed books, I learned where Anna's house was and drove over
to it. No one was home, unfortunately, but I enjoyed walking around the yard. I was, most likely, the first person in my family who had visited
the house in over 50 years.
For the past several years in Portland, as I looked at the old photos, I had wondered where in North Dakota Anna's mysterious house was. And now, after
doing countless hours of research, here I was standing in her front yard. Then I got in my truck, drove over to the cemetery, found her grave and paid my
quiet respects to this stolid Norwegian matriarch.
By visiting Anna's house and grave, and piecing together her story, I felt like I had known her to some extent, even though she died many years before I was born.
Raising five kids on her own after her husband had left her and "practically giving her life for her children," as was described in her touching obituary,
I thought Anna Swang was an admirable and inspiring person. Indeed, of all of the relatives that I've researched on this trip around the country, Anna is probably
the one who I would have enjoyed meeting the most.
Above left: These are my great-grandparents (seated): Anna and Nels Swang, in a photo taken around
1925. Anna and Nels were born in Norway: Anna in Nord-Rana and Nels in Hallingdal. They emigrated with their families to the U.S.,
married in 1896 in South Dakota, and then moved to Fessenden, North Dakota six years later. Two of their five children, Betsy (left) and Albert
(center), are standing behind them. My grandmother Helga wasn't in this photo. Anna and Nels divorced around 1905 and Anna raised her five children alone, so
I don't know why Anna and Nels sat together for this portrait twenty years later, in 1925.
Above right: The family photo was made into a post card and this is the writing on the back, but it's all in Norwegian!
I think this was written by Betsy to her grandmother who was in Norway. Piecing together the story of the Swangs has been a giant puzzle and there are
a lot of questions that I haven't yet answered.
Note: In August 2007, a website reader named Kristin from Norway wrote to me and kindly provided this translation of the 1925 postcard:
Dear Mother, I will send you this card so that you can see how we look like these days. You
probably don't know them. He who stands is Albert and she who stands to the left is Alma, his wife, and I'm on the right side, father and
mother you must know. And the little girl is Albert's daughter. How are you doing? We're all doing well. I have to finish.
Greetings from everyone, but most from your daughter Louise.
Above left: Anna Swang's five children around 1908. Front: Henry, Alvin and Albert. Back:
Betsy and my grandmother, Helga.
Above center: Anna lived in Fessenden, North Dakota from 1900 until her death in 1933. I drove up to Fessenden, North
Dakota one afternoon to see what I could learn about Anna. I spent an hour in the County Courthouse and, from an old plat map, located her house.
Above right: And sure enough, it's still there. After Anna's husband Nels left her around 1905 and went to California,
Anna worked as a laundress to support her five children, including my grandmother, Helga. Anna saved enough money to buy this house two years later for $500.
Above left: Part of the purchase contract Anna signed to buy her house in Fessenden in 1907. It was hard for me to imagine – a
single woman, 42 years old, with no marketable skills suddenly having to raise five children on her own after her husband left her, and then
saving enough to buy a house a few years later. Her daughter – my grandmother Helga – kept this paper for the rest of her life, obviously very proud of her mother, Anna.
Above right: Anna Swang died in 1933 after raising her five children. The newspaper printed a flattering
obituary about her. One son, Henry, helped build the Golden Gate Bridge (see News: June 14, 2001), her son
Albert fought in the trenches in World War I, and her daughter Helga was my grandmother.
I've learned a lot about Anna during the past few weeks and admire her for the many challenges she overcame. As I learned, the date of her birth is incorrect; she was actually born in 1868.
Left: Driving back to Bismarck after spending a memorable day in Fessenden.
The Swangs: Helga's Story
Anna and Nels Swang's second child, Helga, was born in Webster, South Dakota in 1898 and in 1902, she moved with her
parents to Fessenden, North Dakota. A few years later, Nels and Anna divorced and Nels moved to California, leaving Anna alone in Fessenden to
raise their five children, including her daughter, Helga. Helga graduated from Fessenden High School in 1915 and afterwards taught in a one-room
"country school" (as opposed to a "town school") in rural North Dakota. Back in those days, all you needed was a high school
degree, if that, to become a school teacher.
Above: A drawing of Helga when she was about 14. This was around 1912.
After teaching in the one-room school house for a few years, Helga attended a State Teachers College in Minot, North Dakota, graduating with a teaching
degree in 1921. A few months later, she landed a teaching position at the Canfield Consolidated School, four miles east of the small
town of Regan, North Dakota (pop. 70). There were three teachers at the Canfield School: Helga taught primary grades (kindergarten
to fourth grade), a woman named Martha Pfaff taught secondary grades (grades five through eight) and, in the school's small basement, the
principal taught high school to a few students. Interestingly, Martha would later marry my great-uncle Dewey and thus become Helga's sister-in-law.
While Helga was teaching at the Canfield School, she met Ed Reinhard, a local farmer, and they married in 1923. The following year, my mother,
Anna Mae, was born. In 1927, a second girl – my Aunt Betty – was born, followed in 1931 by their third and final child, my Aunt Corky.
Farming was difficult during the 1920s and 1930s and, like many farmers during the Great Depression, Ed lost his farm. The family moved to the
small town of Wing and then to Wilton before moving to Bismarck around 1934, where Ed worked at odd jobs. Three years later, Ed died suddenly,
leaving Helga alone to raise her three children (just as Helga's mother, Anna, had to raise her five children alone). Shortly after Ed died, Helga
taught herself shorthand and then got a job in Bismarck as a secretary to support herself and her three girls, including my mom. Helga was a single
parent raising three children alone, which must have been difficult considering the limited career opportunities and salaries for women in those days of
the Great Depression.
Above: My grandmother Helga and my mother (center) in 1926 during the fall wheat harvest (note
the horse-drawn thresher on the right). Helga's sisters-in-law are on either side. This photo captivates me.
It's the picture that compelled me, more than any other, to visit North Dakota, to find out what I could about my mother and her
I was confused to learn all of this, however, because years earlier my mother had told me that she had grown up in a well-to-do family in Bismarck
during the Great Depression and that her father had been a lawyer. When I arrived in Bismarck in early September, I figured that I'd spend only a
day here confirming what my mother had told me and then head back to Bellingham, Washington. But I couldn't find any record of my grandfather, and certainly
not of him ever being a lawyer. I couldn't find a single record of my mother's family ever having lived in Bismarck, or even North Dakota.
After two weeks of fruitless search, I was getting frustrated, so I decided to start from scratch. I wanted to find some record,
any record, of my mother's family having lived in North Dakota, so I began poring through the 1930 census data for the entire state.
I went through the microfilmed data county-by-county, line-by-line, hoping to find her family living somewhere in North Dakota during that
After several days and reading thousands of hand-written entries, I struck gold: I discovered my mother's parents listed
in the 1930 census living on a farm near the small town of Regan, about 30 miles north of Bismarck. A farm? I was stunned.
But starting with that one nugget of information, I spent the next several weeks slowly piecing together her family's story.
Above: My grandmother Helga's wedding portrait in 1923.
The real story, as I slowly learned, was much more bleak and depressing than my mom had told me. I think she was ashamed or embarrassed
to admit that her family had been dirt-poor and had lived on a farm when she was young. Even my dad didn't know much about my mom's early
days. Now I understood why all of the photos that I had of my mother when she was young were on farmlands out in the countryside. It
saddened me to think that my mother had lived with that self-inflicted shame her entire life. I've always been fascinated with farming for
some reason, as I've mentioned before, and after making these discoveries during my research in North Dakota, I realized why. Farming
apparently is in my blood.
In 1943, a few weeks after graduating from high school, my mother left Bismarck at age 19 and married my dad, who was going to Naval
Officer Training School in Dickinson, North Dakota during World War II. Her mother Helga left Bismarck a few years later and moved to Sturgis, South
Dakota where she eked out a living as a secretary at the Veteran's Administration Hospital there. My dad told me that he remembers our
family stopping by to visit Helga in Sturgis during their cross-country vacation trips in the 1950s. Helga lived in a tiny cabin, and although
she obviously didn’t have much money, she would always load up our family’s station wagon with sandwiches for them to eat while on the road.
In 1963, Helga, who was now 65, moved to Capistrano Beach, California to be with her middle daughter, Betty. She lived temporarily with Betty
while looking for a room to rent nearby. The following spring, and shortly before moving out of Betty's house, Helga died of a heart attack.
I have what is probably the last letter she ever wrote, which she sent to my mother two days before she passed away. At that time my family was living
in northern California and, ironically, we were all planning to drive down to see Helga the following week. In her final letter to
us, Helga told us how much she was looking forward to seeing all of us.
I was only three years old when I last saw my grandmother Helga and have only the dimmest memories of her. Everyone
in my family has told me what a wonderful and thoughtful person she was. She worked hard her entire life to provide for her
children – as did Helga's mother, Anna Swang. Apparently it runs in the family.
Above left: There were several pictures of this mysterious building in Helga's photo album, but I had no idea what (or where) it
was. One day in the Bismarck library I was looking through a book and happened to see an old picture of this same school. According to the caption,
it was called the Canfield School and was located a few miles from Regan. As I learned, the Canfield School was built in 1916
and burned down in 1928. It was an amazing coincidence, stumbling across a picture of this school in a library book, and it proved to be a crucial piece of the puzzle.
Above center: Helga taught at the Canfield School from 1921 to 1923, then married Ed Reinhard. According to North Dakota state law at the
time, a woman teacher who got married had to quit her job, a policy that was common in the U.S. in those days.
Above right: The Canfield School, built in 1916. It had two large school rooms on the top floor and two smaller
rooms below. The school was located on the southern edge of Section 16 of the Canfield Township. This photo was given to me by Hester Bailey (see story below).
Above left: Another photo from Helga's photo album. This was a Canfield schoolteacher, Martha Pfaff (who later became
Helga's sister-in-law), leading her students in calisthenics.
Above right: After learning that Helga had taught at the Canfield School, I drove out to see it. The school burned down in
1928 so there's nothing left of it, but this is the lot where it sat. This small building was a schoolhouse that was moved here in the 1960s, well after
Helga had taught here. Even though there's nothing left of the Canfield School, it was interesting to walk around the grounds and to think about what life
for my grandmother had been like here in the 1920s.
Above: Map of the Regan area showing the location of Henry's farm, which he homesteaded in 1907 after moving here
with his family from Minnesota. Also shown are the locations of the farms that his sons, George and Leroy, bought in the early 1920s. Helga
and Edward lived on George's farm, where my mother, Anne, grew up. Leroy died of appendicitis in 1925 and all of the farms had been lost by the 1930s
during the Great Depression. Also shown is the site of the Canfield School, built in 1916, where Helga taught in the early 1920s. The school burned
down in 1928 and today little is left of it.
Above left: My grandmother Helga with my mother around 1926.
Above center: Helga (on the left) with my parents in Florida in 1945,
shortly after my folks got married. My dad was going through Navy SEAL training in Fort
Pierce at this time. Helga died in the mid-1960s and I only vaguely remember her. People tell me
that she was a wonderful person and that my mom was very fond of her.
Above right: Helga with two of her three children: my mother and Helga's youngest daughter, Corrine.
This was in 1949 in Bismarck. Helga is holding my brother Don and my sister Doti is in front. Helga had raised three girls
alone during the Great Depression, similar to how her mother, Anna Swang, had raised her five children alone in the early 1900s.
The most amazing event during my seven-week stay in North Dakota, and perhaps during my entire five-month drive around America, occurred only a
few days before I headed back to the Northwest. As I poked around the nearly-deserted town of Regan on a cold and gray afternoon, I met a fellow
named Otto Uhde who was a little older than myself. When I told Otto that I was a descendent of the long-gone Reinhard family, he suggested that I
talk to a woman named Hester Bailey. Otto glanced at his watch and said, "You know, it's almost 5 o'clock so I'm sure Hester's eating dinner
over in Wing. Why don't you follow me, because I'm going over there in a few minutes." I told Otto that I wanted to stop by the cemetery
first and said that I'd meet him in Wing.
Twenty minutes later I pulled into the small town of Wing, located about 10 miles east of Regan, and found the town's only restaurant, called
the Chat & Chew Cafe. Otto had arrived a minute earlier and we walked into the small, dimly-lit and smoky cafe. Otto walked over to
an elderly woman who was eating alone in the nearly-empty restaurant and introduced me to her. "This fellow is related to the Reinhards who
lived in Regan," said Otto. Hester extended her hand and I shook it and introduced myself. I sat down next to her and Hester
told me that she'd lived in this area her entire life, so I asked her if she remembered my grandmother, Helga Swang, who had passed away in 1964.
Above: 87-year old Hester Bailey (left) in the Chat-and-Chew Cafe in Wing, North Dakota with
the cafe owner, Alice. Hester, as I discovered, was a kindergarten student of my grandmother Helga's in 1921. Hester still
has a small leather coin purse that Helga gave to her that year.
I spent two hours with Hester, who told me many stories about my grandparents and great-grandparents. She's a
delightful woman and meeting her was an amazing experience, one of the highlights of my trip around the country.
To my utter amazement, Hester said, "Oh yes, I remember Miss Swang. She was my kindergarten teacher in 1921." I was totally
dumbstruck. Hester remembered Helga fondly and I eagerly listened to her stories about the Swangs and Reinhards. I couldn't believe that I
had met someone who remembered these people who I had been researching for the past several months. As she sat in the tiny cafe finishing
her dinner, Hester proudly told me that she still has the leather purse that Helga (or "Miss Swang," as she called her) gave to her after she
had graduated from kindergarten.
After a while, I excused myself, went out to my truck, and brought my laptop computer into the cafe. Then I showed Hester several scanned photos
from Helga's old photo album, including Helga's elementary school, which had burned down in 1928. Hester remembered the Canfield School vividly and told me
stories about the school and about several young children in the photographs, all of whom were now in their 80s and 90s, if indeed they were still alive.
Hester also remembered my mother when my mom was a little girl and told me stories about my great-grandmother, Petrina Reinhard (Edward's mother), who died
in 1927. Before meeting Hester, I had known almost nothing about Petrina, so I was fascinated to hear Hester's stories about her and my other relatives,
many who I knew only in old photos. As we continued to talk, Hester told me that she'd been married for many years but her husband died a while
back. These days, her entire life revolved around the sleepy town of Wing.
After about two hours, I told Hester that I had to go. It was obvious from her glowing smile that she enjoyed meeting the grandson of her kindergarten
teacher and talking about "the old days." With a smile, I shook Hester's hand, thanked her for her time and promised to write to her when
I got back to Washington, which I intend to do. As I drove back to Bismarck that night, I realized that Hester is probably the only person alive who
remembers my great-grandparents, and the only person in North Dakota who remembers my grandmother Helga. Even more amazing, of course, was that Hester
was one of Helga's students. It was an unbelievable encounter and is something I'll never forget.
Above left: Earlier that afternoon, I had stopped in the bleak town of Regan, North Dakota to see what I could
learn about my mother's family. This is virtually the entire town. Every commercial building is closed, even the Post Office, and my
truck is the only vehicle on Main Street. I met a wonderful fellow here named Otto Uhde who took me to the nearby town of Wing.
Above right: Wing, North Dakota (pop. 191) is a few miles from Regan and just a bit larger. As I discovered,
my mother lived in Wing during the early 1930s before she moved with her family to Bismarck. I walked into the Chat & Chew
Cafe and there, sitting by herself eating dinner, I met Hester Bailey.